Peripheral physical signs of aortic insufficiency are related to the high pulse pressure and the rapid decrease in blood pressure during
diastole due to blood returning to the heart (the wrong way) from the aorta through the incompetent aortic valve, although usefulness of
some of the eponymous signs has been questioned:

•        large-volume, 'collapsing' pulse also known as:
Watson's water hammer pulse

•        Corrigan's pulse (rapid upstroke and collapse of the carotid artery pulse)
•        low diastolic and increased pulse pressure

De Musset's sign (head nodding in time with the heart beat)

Quincke's sign (pulsation of the capillary bed in the nail)

Traube's sign (a double sound heard over the femoral artery when it is compressed distally)

Duroziez's sign (systolic and diastolic murmurs described as 'pistol shots' heard over the femoral artery when it is gradually

Less used signs include:

•        Lighthouse sign (blanching & flushing of forehead)

Landolfi's sign (alternating constriction & dilatation of pupil)

Becker's sign (pulsations of retinal vessels)

Müller's sign (pulsations of uvula)

Mayen's sign (diastolic drop of BP>15 mm Hg with arm raised)

Rosenbach's sign (pulsatile liver)

Gerhardt's sign (enlarged spleen)

Hill's sign - a ≥ 20 mmHg difference in popliteal and brachial systolic cuff pressures, seen in chronic severe AI. Considered to be an
artefact of sphygmomanometric lower limb pressure measurement.

Lincoln sign (pulsatile popliteal)

Sherman sign (dorsalis pedis pulse is quickly located & unexpectedly prominent in age>75 yr)

Ashrafian sign (Pulsatile pseudo-proptosis)

•        - An
AI color jet width > 65 percent of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) diameter (may not be true if the jet is eccentric)

Doppler vena contracta width > 0.6cm

•        The
pressure half-time of the regurgitant jet is < 250 msec

•        Early termination of the mitral inflow (due to increase in LV pressure due to the AI.)

•        Holodiastolic flow reversal in the descending aorta.

•        Regurgitant volume > 60 ml

•        Regurgitant fraction > 50 percent

•        Regurgitant orifice area > 0.3 cm2

•        Increased left ventricular size
AI Physical & Echo Signs