EQUATIONS
dP/dt
Measures myocardial contractility
Decrease Vel scale to 4m/sec
Measured time(dt):1m/sec to 3m/sec
dP/dt = 32000 / dt

Normal        > 1200 mmHg/sec
Borderline    1000-1200 mmHg/sec
Abnormal     < 1000 mmHg/sec
PAEDP
(4-12 mmHg)


PI end diastolic velocity reflects the
pressure gradient PA / RV
At end diastole RVP = RAP
PAEDP= 4(PR
EDV)2+ RAP
RVSP
(18 - 25 mmHg)
RVSP = PAP (in the absence of PS
or RVOT obstruction)
RVSP = RAP + 4 x (TR Vel)2
RVSP = sysBP - 4x VSD2 (as PDA2)
PCWP = 1.24 x (E / E') + 1.9
E: mitral inflow
E': TDI septal annulus
Mild        30 - 40 mmHg
Mod       40 - 70 mmHg
Sev      > 70 mmHg
SV = EDV - ESV        mL   (50-90)
CO = SV x HR           mL/min   (4-7)
CI = CO / BSA           L/min/kg2  (2.5-4.5)

EF = SV / EDV (%)
FS = (LVIDd - LVIDs) / LVIDd (%)

LV Mass = 1.04 x [(IVSd + PWDd + LVIDd)3 - LVIDd3] x 0.8 + 0.6 (gm)

SV = (LVOTdiam)2 x 0.785 x LVOT VTI (in systole; 50-90)
SV = CSA (cm2) x VTI (cm)
CSA = pi x r2 = 0.785 x d2
CO = SV x HR / 1000

Shunt Flow = RVOT SV / LVOT SV
TEICHOLZ

EDV = 7 x LVIDd3 / (2.4 + LVIDd)         (126 +- 29 ml)
ESV = 7 x LVIDs
3 / (2.4 + LVIDs)           (49+- 19 ml)
GIBSON

EDV = 0.52 x (0.98 x LVIDd + 5.9) x LVIDd2
ESV = 0.52 x (1.14 x LVIDs + 4.18) x LVIDs2
CUBE

EDV = LVIDd3
ESV = LVIDs3
Uncorrected EF = UEF = (LVIDd - LVIDs)2 / LVIDs2
Corrected EF = UEF + [X * (100% - UEF)]
Hypokinetic: X = 5 %
Akinetic: X = 0 to 5 %
Dyskinetic / aneurysmal: X = -10 %
TEI
Represents global ventricular function
independent of LV geometry
Combines systolic and diastolic
Independent of HR
TEI = [(IVCT+ET+IVRT) - ET]/ ET
TEI LV        0.35 +/- 0.05   (0.3-0.4)
TEI RV        0.28 +/- 0.04  (0.24-0.32)
TEI LV = LV dysfunction
TEI RV = Pulm.HTN, predicts survival