Pulses
Normal jugular venous pulse:
A,
a positive wave due to contraction of the right atrium;
C, a positive deflection due to bulging of the tricuspid valve toward the atria at the onset of ventricular contraction;
X, a negative deflection due to atrial relaxation;
V, a positive deflection due to filling of the right atrium against the closed tricuspid valve during ventricular contraction;
Y, a negative deflection due to emptying of the right atrium upon ventricular relaxation.


DEFINITIONS
-Hard Pulse
- one characterized by high tension
-Jerky Pulse - one in which the artery is suddenly and markedly distended
-Thready Pulse - one that is very fine and barely perceptible.
-Wiry Pulse - a small, tense pulse.
-Pulse Amplitude - indicative of arterial blood pressure; estimated on the difference of pressure exerted by the fingers to occlude and then reopen the arterial
pulse.
-Pulse Deficit
the difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse. Obtained by counting apical beats as heard through a stethoscope over the heart and counting
the arterial pulse at the same time. A characteristic of several arrhythmias.
-Pistol-Shot Pulse - one in which the arteries are subject to sudden distention and collapse.
-Pulse Pressure - the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.

-Jugular Pulse
Comprises the movements of the wall of the jugular vein in response to pressure changes in the right atrium. Much more visible if the vein is distended. A
reflection of increased pressure in the right atrium or insufficiency of the right A-V valve. A small pulse is normal in most food animals. A large pulse which goes
high up the neck when the head is in the normal position, and which is synchronous with the heart cycle and is systolic in time, indicates insufficiency of the
right atrioventricular valve.

-Arterial Pulse
the wave of pressure generated by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. Although the size (amplitude) of the pulse depends on the volume
ejected it is not the blood passing the finger that is palpated, it is only the pressure wave. The pulse is a good indicator of the heart's activity with respect to
amplitude, rate and regularity. It may also provide information on the state of the vessel walls and the efficiency of the aortic semilunar valves. It may be
palpated in the median, facial, femoral or coccygeal arteries, the preferred site varying with the species and the occasion.

- Atrial Venous Pulse
atriovenous pulse, a cervical pulse having an accentuated 'a' wave during atrial systole, owing to increased force of contraction of the right atrium; a
characteristic of tricuspid stenosis.


Abdominal Pulse
Over the abdominal aorta

Pulsus Alternans
Regular alternation of weak and strong beats without changes in cycle length.

Anacrotic Pulse
One in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows a transient drop in amplitude, or a notch.

AnaDicrotic Pulse
A pulse characterized by two peaks, the second peak occurring in diastole and being an exaggeration of the dicrotic wave.
One in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows two small additional waves or notches.

AnaTricrotic Pulse
One in which the tracing shows three marked expansions in one beat of the artery.
One in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows three small additional waves or notches.

Pulsus Bigeminus
One in which two beats occur in rapid succession, the groups of two being separated by a longer interval, usually related to regularly occurring ventricular
premature beats.

Pulsus Bisferiens
A pulse characterized by two strong systolic peaks separated by a midsystolic dip, most commonly occurring in pure aortic regurgitation and in aortic
regurgitation with stenosis.

Pulsus Corrigan's
Jerky pulse with full expansion and sudden collapse.

Pulsus Catadicrotic
One in which the descending limb of the tracing shows two small notches.

Pulsus Capillary

Pulsus Celer
A swift, abrupt pulse.

Pulsus Differens
Inequality of the pulse obervable at corresponding sites on either side of the body.

Pulsus Entoptic
A phose occurring with each pulse beat

Pulsus Plateau
One that is slowly rising and sustained.

Pulsus Paradoxus
An abnormal inspiratory decrease in arterial blood pressure, seen in cardiac tamponade and caused by a decreased pulmonary venous return.
One that markedly decreases in size during inhalation, as often occurs in constrictive pericarditis.

Pulsus Parvus et Tardus
A small hard pulse that rises and falls slowly.

Pulsus Tardus
An abnormally slow pulse.

Pulsus Quadrigeminal
One with a pause after every fourth beat.

Quincke's
Alternate blanching and flushing of the nail bed due to pulsation of sub-capillary arteriolar and venous plexuses; seen in aortic insufficiency and other
conditions and occasionally in normal persons.

Riegel's Pulse
One that is smaller during respiration.

Thready Pulse
One that is very fine and scarcely perceptible.

Trigeminal Pulse
One with a pause after every third beat.

Vagus Pulse
A slow pulse.

Venous Pulse
The pulsation over a vein, especially over the right jugular vein.

Water-Hammer Pulse
One in which the artery is suddenly and markedly distended and relaxed. Characteristic of PDA patent ductus arteriosus. Called also Corrigan's, jerky and B-B
shot pulse.