SYNCOPE
Which of the following is the most likely etiology of unexplained syncope in a young person without
concurrent cardiovascular disease?

. Vasovagal reflex


2
Which of the following characteristics are typical for spontaneous vasovagal reflex during head-up tilt
test (i.e. obtained without pharmacological provocation):

. Younger patient with lower blood pressure, and more syncopal spells in past history.


3
Which of the following statements is true in regard to resting neuroendocrine profile among patients
diagnosed with vasovagal reflex using a head-up tilt test?

. Both groups share similar resting neuroendocrine profile.


4
Which of the cardio- and vasoactive neurohormones increase before and during spontaneous
syncope during head-up tilt test?

. Epinephrine and vasopressin.



5 The vasovagal reflex is traditionally divided into three types of responses: cardioinhibitory (pause >
3 seconds or bradycardia <40/min over a period > 10 seconds), vasodepressor type (without
pronounced heart rate reduction during syncope), and a mixed type (both heart rate reduction and
hypotension are present). Which of the following is true in regard to spontaneous vasovagal reflex
during head-up tilt test (i.e. obtained without pharmacological provocation):


B. Cardioinhibitory type is more common in spontaneous reflex.